Limiting probability measures

Irfan Alam


The coordinates along any fixed direction(s), of points on the sphere $S^{n-1}(\sqrt{n})$, roughly follow a standard Gaussian distribution as $n$ approaches infinity. We revisit this classical result from a nonstandard analysis perspective, providing a new proof by working with hyperfinite dimensional spheres. We also set up a nonstandard theory for the asymptotic behavior of integrals over varying domains in general. We obtain a new proof of the Riemann--Lebesgue lemma as a by-product of this theory. We finally show that for any function $f \co \mathbb{R}^k \to \mathbb{R}$ with finite Gaussian moment of an order larger than one, its expectation is given by a Loeb integral integral over a hyperfinite dimensional sphere. Some useful inequalities between high-dimensional spherical means of $f$ and its Gaussian mean are obtained in order to complete the above proof.


Spherical integrals; Gaussian measures; Nonstandard analysis

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Journal of Logic and Analysis ISSN:  1759-9008